In this course we present a history of archaeology and politics. We would like to show how disciplines like history and archaeology have been used in Europe by politicians for their strategic purpose through time. Creating images of the past may serve as a justification, social binding, social outcasting, cultural domination or simply a claim on land. Artefacts of ancient cultures were thought of as prestigious demonstrations of the supremacy of modern nation states. Archaeological expeditions were sometimes instrumental in military strategies and imperialistic politics.